Colocasia(Colocasia esculenta) is a crop of tropical and sub-tropical regions
and requires a warm humid climate. Under rainfed conditions, it requires a fairly
well distributed rainfall around 120-150 cm during the growth period. Well-drained
soil is suitable for uniform development of tubers.
Rainfed crop: May-June to Oct-Nov
Irrigated crop: Throughout the year
Sree Rashmi, Sree Pallavi and Sree Kiran are three improved varieties
Seeds and sowing
Use side tubers each of 25-35 g for planting. About 37,000 side tubers weighing
about 1200 kg are required to plant one hectare. Plough or dig the land to a depth
of 20-25 cm and bring to a fine tilth. Make ridges 60 cm apart. Plant the side corms
at a spacing of 45 cm on the ridges.
Apply cattle manure or compost @ 12 t/ha as basal dressing, while preparing the
ridges for planting. A fertilizer dose of 80:25:100 kg of N:P2O5:K2O
per ha is recommended. Full dose of P2O5 and half dose of
N and K2O should be applied within a week after sprouting and the remaining
half dose of N and K2O one month after the first application along with
weeding and earthing up.
Inter-cultivation is essential in colocasia. Weeding, light hoeing and earthing
up are required at 30-45 days and 60-75 days after planting. The leafy parts may
be smothered about one month before harvest so as to enhance tuber development.
Ensure sufficient moisture in the soil at the time of planting. For uniform sprouting,
irrigate just after planting and one week later. Subsequent irrigation may be given
at 12-15 days intervals, depending on the moisture retention capacity of the soil.
The irrigation should be stopped 3-4 weeks before harvest. About 9-12 irrigations
are required for the crop till harvest. In the case of rainfed crop, if there is
prolonged drought, supplementary irrigation is required.
Soon after planting, cover the ridges with suitable mulching materials for retention
of moisture and to control weeds.
Colocasia blight can be controlled by spraying zineb, mancozeb or copper oxychloride
formulations at 2 g/l of water (1 kg/ha). For controlling serious infestation of
aphids, apply dimethoate at 0.05%. Leaf feeders can be controlled by applying malathion
Colocasia becomes ready for harvest five to six months after planting. The mother
corms and side tubers are separated after harvest.
Storage of seed material
The side tubers to be used as planting materials are usually separated from the
mother corm and stored. Keep seed tuber in sand spread over the floor to avoid rotting.