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Agriculture > Ornamental Crops > Jasmine (Jasminum sambac)

Jasmine (Jasminum sambac )

Characteristics

Jasmine or jessamine, the sweet-scented white flowers belong to the genus Jasminum. It is an evergreen semi-vining shrub native to tropical areas of southeast Asia, Africa and Australia. This seasonal plant contains about 150 species. Flowers are about 30 cm and plant height is about 2 m or 3 to 4.5 m if grown as a vine. The oval rich green leaves have five to nine leaflets, each up to 6 cm long.

Grown all over the world for its fragrance, jasmine flowers are used to flavour jasmine tea and other herbal or black teas. The flower oil extracted from the two species Jasminum officinale and J. grandiflorum is used in high-grade perfumes and cosmetics, such as creams, oils, soaps, and shampoos. In Asia, flowers are stringed together to make garlands. Several types of jasmine are used as ornamental plants. Jasminum sambac is the most ideal species for cultivation in kerala.

Soil and climate

Jasmine can be planted on a wide range of soils. Well-drained sandy loams and red loams are ideal for its cultivation. In clayey soils, there is increased vegetative growth and reduced flowering. They give good yield in low rainfall conditions.

Jasmine prefers mild and tropical climate. Jasmine is commercially grown in India under open field conditions. The ideal requirements for successful cultivation of jasmine are mild winter, warm summer, moderate rainfall and sunny days. Jasmines grow well up to 1200 m. A well-distributed annual rainfall of 800 to 1000 mm is optimum for growth and development.

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Propagation

Jasmine can be grown as a vine or a shrub. Layering and cutting are the main propagation methods. Better rooting of cuttings can be obtained by planting in coarse sand and also by using any of the rooting hormones like IBA (5000 ppm), IAA (1000 ppm) and NAA (5000 ppm). Simple and compound layering methods are followed during June-July to October-November. Layers will be ready for planting within 90-120 days.

Frequent pruning is required to grow it as a shrub of desired size. Pruning also helps keep an abundance of flowers, since flowers are produced on new wood. When grown as a vine, its arching branches have to be supported on a mesh or trellis. Jasmine can be produced on almost any soil type, with sufficient water supply and intermediate to warm temperatures. It grows in full sun to partial shade. Fertilize monthly with a balanced fertilizer. The common jasmine grows at the rate 30 cm to 60 cm a year.

Seeds don't need stratifying, and can be planted immediately. Full production begins after grafting in the second year. Flowers are picked in the early morning, since they are the most fragrant at daybreak. When in flower a single plant will strongly scent an entire room or patio on a still summer's eve. 

Important cultivars

There are trailing, climbing, and erect growing species and cultivars. Three important species and their varieties are given below:

1. Jasminum sambac: Gundumalli, Motia, Virupakshi, Sujimalli, Madanabanam, Ramabanam.

2. Jasminum grandiflorum: Co-1 Pitchi, Co-2 Pitchi, Thimmapuram, Lucknow.

3. Jasminum auriculatum: Co-1 Mulla, Co-2 Mulla, Long Point, Long Round, Short Point, Short Round.

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Cultivation practices

Planting

After ploughing the land, pits of about 40 x 40 x 40 cm size are taken and filled with topsoil and 15 kg well-rotten FYM.

Planting distance depends on the species and also on soil and environmental conditions.

Species Planting distance
J. sambac
J.auriculatum
J.grandiflorum
1.2 x 1.2 m
 1.8 x 1.8 m
 2.0 x 1.5 m

Planting is usually done during June-August.

Manuring

Each plant requires a fertilizer dose of 120 g N, 240 g P2O5 and 240 g K2O. The fertilizers are mixed together and applied in two split doses during January and July. This has to be supplemented with organic manures like neem cake, groundnut oil cake etc. at the rate of 100 g per plant per month.

Pruning

Pruning is essential and is done at a height of 45 cm from the ground level during mid December-January.

Weed control

Manual weeding is effective but expensive. Use of weedicides like paraquat is also practised. Mulching also reduces weed population.

Irrigation

Constant and adequate water supply during peak flowering season (March-October) is essential for high yield of flowers. After flowering is over, the water supply can be cut off. During summer, irrigate twice a week.

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Plant protection

Pests

Jasmine is comparatively a hardy plant. Major pests are bud and shoot borers and blossom midge, which can be controlled by spraying 0.15-0.20% carbaryl.

Bud Worm (Hendecasis duplifacialis)

It is a greenish larva with a black head, which bores into immature jasmine buds and feeds on floral structures and, in severe cases, webbing of buds.

Control: A basal application of carbofuran (40g/plant) is recommended for control.

The Gallery Worm (Elasmopolpus jasrninoghagus)

It is a serious pest, which causes webbing of terminal leaves, shoots and towers.

Control: The plants should be sprayed with Malathion (0.2%) to control these insects.

Mites

The mites attack the undersurface of leaves, which become yellow and drop off. Severe puckering and discoloration of leaves are caused by the gall mite in J. auriculatum. The variety Parimullai released by the TNAU, Coimbatore, is resistant to gall mite.

Control: Wettable sulphur (0.3%) can be sprayed on the infested plants to control this pest.

Root-Knot Nematode (Meloidogyne incognita)

It causes severe stunting of plants, branches become dry with yellow leaves which drop prematurely.

Control: Application of neem cake at 1 t/ha or carbofuran at 2.5kg/ha effectively suppresses the nematode population.

Source: http://www.ficciagroindia.com/production-guidelines/flowers/Jasmine/pests.htm

Diseases

Leaf-blight (Cercospora jasminicola and Alternaria jasmini)

This disease occurs in a severe form on J. grandiflorum. Reddish-brown, circular spots are produced on the upper surface of the leaves, spreading rapidly in the rainy season. The infected leaves curl and start drying from the margins. Even the young shoots dry up. In severe cases of infection, vegetative buds and young branches dry up. The flower production is very much reduced in infected plants.

Control: Can be controlled by spraying 0.2% mancozeb or 0.1% benomyl.

Rust (Urormyces hobsoni)

Rust occurs on all the aerial parts of the plants including flowers. Yellowish orange coloured pustules appear on the lower side of the leaves and also on young twigs and flowers buds. The infected parts become distorted.

Control: Controlled by spraying 0.2% zineb.

Wilt (Fusarium solani)

The disease occurs in patches and the roots turn black. In the case of sclerotial wilt, in addition to the above symptoms, white mycelia are found generally girdling the roots and the sclerotia are found adhering to the roots of the wilted plants.

Control: Drench the soil with 1% Bordeaux mixture.

Source: http://www.ficciagroindia.com/production-guidelines/flowers/Jasmine/diseases.htm

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Harvesting

Full production begins after grafting in the second year. Flowers are picked in the early morning, since they are the most fragrant at daybreak. When in flower a single plant will strongly scent an entire room or patio on a still summer's eve. 

Yield

Yield of flowers and jasmine oil vary according to the species and management practices.
 

Species Flower yield (t/ha) Oil yield (kg/ha)
J. sambac
J. auriculatum J.grandiflorum
5
5
6
15.44 28.00 29.00

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