The giant freshwater prawn is suitable for cultivation in tropical and subtropical
climates. The most commonly cultured species in India is Macrobrachium rosenbergii.
It is a hardy species by virtue of its ability to adapt to various types of
fresh and brackish-water conditions. It accepts pelleted feed and has omnivorous
feeding habit. The breeding takes place in low saline waters which is also needed
for larval and post larval development after incubation. Breeding of M. rosenbergii
takes place in estuaries. Though seed may be available in natural sources to
a limited extent, for large scale culture there is a need to ensure regular supply
of seed. For ensuring availability of quality seed in predictable quantity freshwater
prawn hatcheries should be encouraged, technology for which is already developed.
Freshwater prawn hatcheries are coming up in many states.
The aquaculture production of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii
in India has shown a phenomenal increase in recent years that has increased
from less than 500 metric tonne in 1997 to more than 30,000 metric tonne in 2003.
The major bottleneck for the further expansion of the prawn culture is the lack
of adequate supply of post-larvae (prawn seed) for stocking. The projected seed
requirement for the development of at least two lakhs hectare of water area in the
coming years is 10,000 million. Indian aquaculture has been evolving from the level
of subsistence activity to that of an industry. This transformation has been made
possible with the development and standardization of many new production and associated
techniques of input and output subsystems. In recent years aquaculture has created
great enthusiasm and interest among entrepreneurs especially for shrimp farming
in coastal areas. Shrimp farming is capital-intensive activity and uncontrolled
mushrooming growth of it has led to outbreak of diseases and attributed environmental
issues calling for closure of shrimp farms.
Although India has vast freshwater resources they are not fully exploited except
for carp culture in limited scale. Fresh water fish culture employing composite
fish culture technology has become popular for use in large number of tanks and
ponds in the country. To meet the raw material required by the processing units
for export demand there is urgent need to expand our production base. In addition
it is always stressed that there is a need to utilise our natural resources productively
to ensure the much needed food security.
Scampi production through aquaculture in
Considering the high export potential, the giant fresh water prawn, Macrobrachium
rosenbergii , the scampi, enjoys immense potential for culture in India.
About 4 million ha of impounded freshwater bodies in the various states of India,
offer great potential for fresh water prawn culture. Scampi can be cultivated for
export through monoculture in existing as well as new ponds or with compatible freshwater
fishes in existing ponds. It is exported to EEC countries and USA. Since the world
market for scampi is expanding with attractive prices, there is great scope for
scampi production and export.
State wise production details of scampi farming