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Animal Husbandry > Pig

General Information

Pigs are raised solely for meat production. They are efficient converters of feed into meat, quick to multiply and can fit into diverse systems of management. Cost and availability of feed and the price fetched for the animal are the chief factors influencing profitable pig production. Where pigs are maintained on agricultural and industrial by-products, household and kitchen wastes, meat offals etc. the cost of production will be low.

Among the various livestock species, piggery is most potential source of meat production and more efficient feed converters after the broiler. Apart from providing meat, it is also a source of bristles and manure. Pig farming will provide employment opportunities to seasonally employed rural farmers and supplementary income to improve their living standards.

The advantages of the pig farming are :

  • The pig has got highest feed conversion efficiency i.e. they produce more live weight gain from a given weight of feed than any other class of meat producing animals except broilers.
  • The pig can utilise wide variety of feed stuffs viz. grains, forages, damaged feeds and garbage and convert them into valuable nutritious meat. However, feeding of damaged grains, garbage and other unbalanced rations may result in lower feed efficiency.
  • They are prolific with shorter generation interval. A sow can be bred as early as 8-9 months of age and can farrow twice in a year. They produce 6-12 piglets in each farrowing.
  • Pig farming requires small investment on buildings and equipments
  • Pigs are known for their meat yield, which in terms of dressing percentage ranges from 65 - 80 in comparison to other livestock species whose dressing yields may not exceed 65%.
  • Pork is most nutritious with high fat and low water content and has got better energy value than that of other meats. It is rich in vitamins like thiamin, Niacin and riboflavin.
  • Pigs manure is widely used as fertilizer for agriculture farms and fish ponds.
  • Pigs store fat rapidly for which there is an increasing demand from poultry feed, soap, paints and other chemical industries.
  • Pig farming provides quick returns since the marketable weight of fatteners can be achieved with in a period of 6-8 months.
  • There is good demand from domestic as well as export market for pig products such as pork, bacon, ham, sausages, lard etc.

Scope for Pig Farming and its contribution to National Economy

The pig population of the country is 13.291 million as per the 1997 livestock census and 13.519 million as per 2003 census from states and constitutes around 1.30% of the total world's population. The state wise pig population is given below. The pork production stands at 4.97 lakh tonnes (2005). During 2001-02 the production of pork and pork products were estimated to be 6,12,550 MT with 3.03% growth rate in last decade. It comprised over 38% of the total world meat product. Indian share in piggery meat production moderately increased from 0.53% in 1981 to 0.63 in 2002. The contribution of pork products in terms of value works out to 0.80% of total livestock products and 4.32% of the meat and meat products.

State wise pig population in India during 1997 and 2003, in thousands

Sl No.
States/U.T.s 1997 2003
1
Andhra Pradesh
748
570
2
Arunachal Pradesh
249
330
3
Assam
1082
1543
4
Bihar
924
1780
5
Chattisgarh
456
552
6
Goa
105
87
7
Gujarat
198
351
8
Haryana
700
120
9
Himachal Pradesh
7
3
10
Jammu & Kashmir
12
2
11
Karnataka
405
312
12
Kerala
88
76
13
Madhya Pradesh
375
358
14
Maharashtra
567
439
15
Manipur
388
415
16
Meghalaya
351
419
17
Mizoram
163
218
18
Nagaland
571
644
19
Orissa
602
662
20
Punjab
96
29
21
Rajasthan
305
338
22
Sikkim
27
38
23
Tamil Nadu
609
321
24
Tripura
211
209
25
Uttar Pradesh
3135
2284
26
Uttaranchal
32
33
27
West Bengal
805
1301
28
Andaman & Nicobar Islands
43
52
29
Chandigarh
3
0
30
Dadra & N Haveli
0
3
31
Daman & Diu
0
0
32
Delhi
31
28
33
Lakshadweep
0
0
34
Pondicherry
1
1
India Total
13291
13519
(Source:17th Livestock census, 2003)

The pig farming constitutes the livelihood of rural poor belonging to the lowest socio-economic strata and they have no means to undertake scientific pig farming with improved foundation stock, proper housing, feeding and management. Therefore, suitable schemes to popularise the scientific pig breeding cum rearing of meat producing animals with adequate financial provisions are necessary to modernise the Indian pig industry and to improve the productivity of small sized rural pig farms.

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